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              南京大屠杀

              时间:2017-12-15来源:网友提供 作者:张纯如 点击:

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                1937年12月13日,中华民国首都南京被日军占领。对日本而言,占领南京是战争中决定性的转折点,是日军在半年里同蒋介石的军队在长江一带厮杀的胜利的顶点。而对中国军队而言,英勇的上海保卫战最终失败,最优秀的部队也伤亡惨重,而南京的陷落则是一次惨痛的,或许是致命的失败。

                现在看来,我们还可以把南京当做另一种类型的转折点。南京古老的城墙里发生的一切,极大地激发了中国人民收复南京,赶走侵略者的决心。中国政府撤退并重组,最终在这场于1945年结束的战争中击败了日本。在其问8年中,日本占领着南京,并建立了一个由中国人中的投降分子组成的政府;但这个政府从不具可信性和合法性,它也从未能使中国投降。从更大的范围来说,南京的暴行使公众舆论以一种前所未有的方式反对日本。

                今天,在几代人都受到日本所犯罪行及其失败的教育的中国,日本如何赎罪还是一个问题。60年过去了,南京的冤魂仍然影响着中日关系。

                确实如此。日本人对中国首都的洗劫是一次骇人听闻的恐怖事件。大批处决战俘,以及屠杀、奸淫数十万平民,这一切违背了所有的战争规则。至今仍令人瞠目结舌的是,这是公开的活动,是有预谋的残暴行为。国际人士亲眼目睹了这次屠杀,但他们试图阻止日本人的努力却是徒劳的。南京的暴行也并不是军队纪律暂时的松懈所致,因为屠杀持续达七个星期之久。本书所讲述的,就是艾里斯·张(张纯如)对南京的悲剧首次用英语进行的全面研究,是一个震憾人心的恐怖故事。

                我们也许永远无法准确了解,究竟是什么促使日本的指挥官和军队作出如此残忍的暴行。但对日军的所作所为,张小姐此书比以往的任何记录都更为详细。在本书中,她像用了大量的原始资料,、包括来自当时第三国目击者的无可辩驳的指证:外国传教士和商人,在日本人进入毫无防争的南京城时,他们就留在城里。张小姐发观的其中一份这样的资料,是一份日记--实际上是一份小型档案--约翰·拉贝的日记。拉贝是一名德国商人,德国国家社会主义工人党人。在南京大屠杀期间,他领导着一个保护南京民众的国际行动。通过拉贝的眼睛,我们可以看鲥南京居民在手无寸铁的情形下面对日本人屠杀的那种畏惧而又勇敢。通过张小姐的叙述,我们深为钦佩在南京城被点燃、百姓被屠杀之际,在医院被关闭、陈尸所被装满、哀号遍城之时,拉贝和那些试图改变现状的人们的勇气。我们也读到,那些知道了在南京发生的一切的日本人也为此感到羞愧。

                过去,南京的暴行在西方已几乎被人们所忘记,所以,本书问世尤显重要。张小姐把它称作"被遗忘的大屠杀",将二战期间在欧洲和亚洲发生的对数百万无辜者的屠杀联系在一起。事实上,日本和纳粹德国后来成为盟国,却并不是很好的盟友。但是南京发生的一切--希特勒肯定没有想到--使他们成为精神上的帮凶、残暴的侵略者和最终被称作“对抗人性的罪行”的作恶者。W.H.奥登①曾目睹了中国发生的这场战争,他把欧洲和亚洲发生的一切更早地联系在一起③:

                            地图能真的标明位置

                            现在,那里的生命已是灾难:

                            南京;达豪③。

                                    威廉·C·柯比

                                哈佛大学历史系主任,中国现代史教授

                注:

                ①w·H·奥登,英国著名诗人,1907--1973年,1948年获美国普利策诗歌奖:--译注

                ②选自w·H.奥登《短诗集:1930-1944》》中"在战争年代"。第279--280页,伦敦,1950。

                ③Dachau,德国巴伐利亚州地名,曾建有纳粹集中营。--译注  
               
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              导言 

               

                人类同胞相残的历史是一个漫长而凄惨的故事。倘若在这些恐怖的故事中存在着不同程度的暴行的话,那么,没有几次劫难能在程度和范围上与二战期间的南京暴行相比。

                在美国人眼中,第二次世界大战是在1941年12月7日开始的,这一天日本航空母舰所载的飞机袭击了珍珠港。欧洲人把二战开始的日子定在1939年9月1日,这一天希特勒的空军和装甲部队闪电般地袭击了波兰。在非洲人看来,二战开始得更早些--1935年,墨索里尼入侵阿比西尼亚(现称埃塞俄比亚--译注)。对于亚洲入来说,战争的开始则必须要追溯到日本对东亚军事控制的第一步--1931年侵占满洲。

                正像希特勒德国在5年后所做的一样,日本用高度发达的军事力量和种族优越感,着手建立其统治邻邦的权力。日本人很快攻占满洲并建立“满洲国”政府,该政府表面是在他们使用的"傀儡"--一个早被废黜的皇帝的统治之下,实际上是在日本军方的控制之中。4年后,也就是1935年,察哈尔和河北部分被占领;1937年,北京、天津,上海和南京相继沦陷。对于中国人来说,整个30年代是十分艰难的。

                的确,直到1945年第二次世界大战结束,日本人才最后从中国的土地上撤走。

                毫无疑问,日本军队统治的14年有无数难以描绘的残暴事件。在许多曾遭受侵略者铁蹄践踏的城市和村庄中究竟发生过什么,我们永远无法了解清楚。有枣味的是,我们知道发生在南京的故事,是因为一些目睹了这场灾难的外国仑车当时把消息告诉了外界,一些中国人也侥幸生存下来,成翟目击证人。如果说有什么事件可以做为例证,揭露日本狂妄的军事冒险主义表面下的纯粹邪恶,那就是他们在南京犯下的暴行。本书讲述的就是这一故事。

                除了在日本人之间,南京暴行的大致情况已是无须置辩的。1937年11月,日本侵占上海后,马上对新建不久的中华民国首都南京发起了大规模的进攻。1937年12月13日,霹京沦陷,日本士兵在这里开始了一场人类.历史上前所鲜见的囊暴屠杀。数万名年轻人被包围着驱赶到城外,然后被日军用机枪扫射,有的则被当作刺刀练习的活靶子,或是被浇上汽油活活烧死。一连几个月,南京城的街道上堆满了尸体,到处弥漫着腐烂的人肉臭味。多年以后,远东国际军事法譬叩专家们估计,自1937年末至1938年初,南京大约有超甚260,000名非战斗人员死于日军手中,还有专家认为这一数字超过350,000。

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