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              明朝士大夫是怎樣變壞的

              時間:2019-08-17來源:網友提供 作者:未知 點擊:
              明朝士大夫是怎樣變壞的
               
               
               
                明朝前期,一大亮點是士大夫的氣節品質,明朝的歷代文官中就常見各種硬骨頭。碰上關乎國計民生的原則問題,哪怕品級低的小官也常硬懟皇帝。治國能臣輩出,比如張居正“撕”高拱,別管彼此有多大仇,在朝廷大事上也絕不互相拆臺。但到了晚明,一直標榜“氣節品質”的明朝士大夫,其表現卻呈斷崖式下跌。
                 
                 細看其中緣由,一點也不奇怪。明朝士大夫的加速度墮落,首先是價值觀出了問題。嘉靖年間,某文學家回憶:明朝前期的官員深受理學教育熏陶,向來看淡財富田產,最重氣節名譽。就算在松江這樣的富庶地區,當地世代官宦的名門,生活水平不過中等級別。誰要敢做官時貪圖享受、經營產業,必然會被集體鄙視。那時士大夫的剛正表現正是以這清廉自守的信仰為支撐。
                 
                 但從嘉靖年間起,明朝商品經濟高速發展,朝堂上的傳統信仰也被沖得七零八落。官員從中進士開始就忙著買田置地,甚至借權勢插手各類生意,社會風氣大變。張居正曾一語嘆息當時的亂象,商賈在位,貨財上流——凡事基本就是以金錢開路。
                 
                 于是,士大夫在朝堂上互相拆臺搞黨爭,嘴上喊著江山社稷,心里謀的卻是自家利益,享樂奢靡風氣大起。意大利傳教士利瑪竇就親筆記錄了明朝官場的飯局:餐具全是金銀器皿,菜肴堆得像“一座小型的城堡”。為何敢這么奢靡?因為“開支全由公家支付”。
                 
                 所以,李自成攻取北京時,甚至清軍南下時,這些士大夫丑態百出:報國的信仰早就化作浮云,一生做官只為權和財,跟誰不是升官發財?該賣就要賣。
                 
                 比起價值觀的崩塌,明朝士大夫墮落的更致命的方式,就是殘酷的逆淘汰。逆淘汰的典型方式是黨爭。萬歷皇帝的怠政讓朝臣間的傾軋走上了失控狀態。大臣們拉幫結派,正常的官員任免、考核成了過場。官員晉升的主要途徑就是跟對派別。如此一來,萬歷晚期起,大明朝堂上就“好名”成風,朝廷越是水深火熱,官員們越是精神抖擻罵得歡。李自成率軍從陜西進入山西時,朝中山西籍的官員破口大罵,指責陜西官員“縱賊”。陜西籍官員哪肯吃虧,回罵山西籍官員“通賊”。崇禎皇帝在位的17年里,這樣的罵戰每年都有好多場。耽誤正事?哪有官員站隊博名聲重要。
                 
                 比如崇禎年間,山陽縣(今屬陜西商洛)武舉陳啟新悲憤上書言事,奏折直戳明朝各大弊病。如獲至寶的崇禎皇帝欣然將陳啟新提拔為給事中,不料捅了馬蜂窩。接下來的時間里,各路官員不顧國家危亡,大罵陳啟新,終于羅織各種罪名,害得為官清廉的陳啟新被撤職走人。至于血戰巨鹿的盧象升,經略陜西、痛擊李自成的孫傳庭,哪個不是迎著罵聲苦干,最后含恨而亡?
                 
                 當一個朝堂劣幣驅逐良幣已然成了氣候,真正的人才豈有容身之地?崇禎皇帝臨終都在說著“文臣皆可殺”,可真正造就滿朝“可殺文臣”,令明朝亡國的,正是大明朝自己。
               
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